Euclidean Windowed Tiling

Preview 2-component Rauzy Fractal
2-component Rauzy Fractal

A one dimensional substitution rule with a two component Rauzy Fractal. For a second example and more details see infinite component Rauzy fractal.

One Dimensional Euclidean Windowed Tiling Self Similar Substitution

Preview A->AB, B->C, C->A
A->AB, B->C, C->A

A classic simple substitution rule with Rauzy Fractal:

One Dimensional Euclidean Windowed Tiling Self Similar Substitution Polytopal Tiles

Preview A->AB, B->C, C->A (dual)
A->AB, B->C, C->A (dual)

The dual tiling of the 1D tiling a->ab, b->c, c->a, resp. the version with polygonal tiles.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogramm Tiles

Preview Ammann A3
Ammann A3

In 1977 Robert Ammann discovered a number of sets of aperiodic prototiles, i.e., prototiles with matching rules forcing nonperiodic tilings. These were published as late as 1987 in [GS87] , where they were named Ammann A2 (our Ammann Chair), Ammann A3, Ammann A4 and Ammann A5 (better known as Ammann Beenker tiling). The substitution of this one uses the golden ratio as inflation factor. It is certainly true that this is a cut and project tiling, but to our knowledge, noone bothered to compute the window of it up to now.

Without Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Ammann-Beenker rhomb triangle
Ammann-Beenker rhomb triangle

A self-similar version of the Ammann-Benker tiling. The colours of the triangles in the rule image indicate the orientation of the triangles: the orange triangle is just the ochre triangle reflected. Hence the rhomb supertile has two axes of mirror symmetry.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogramm Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Central Fibonacci
Central Fibonacci

The substitution rule a1->a1 b1, a2->b2 a2, b1->a2, b2->a1. The tilings generated become Fibonacci tilings under the projection a1,a2->a and b1,b2->b. Alternatively one can simply remove the colour labels on the tiles. The name comes from the projection structure of the tiling. The expansion predecessor of the tiling is itself a projection tiling with the window lying at the center of the window for the full tiling. For more information see [HL].

Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling One Dimensional Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Self Similar Substitution Mld Class Fibonacci

Preview Chaim's Cubic PV
Chaim's Cubic PV

Part of an infinite series, where most tilings in this series are not flc, this one is the exception. The reason is that the inflation factor is a - real - PV number. By an argument in [PR] this forces flc. Interestingly, the shape of the tiles can vary. That is, there is one free parameter $l$ , $0 < l < 1+s$, and the smallest prototile is the triangle with sides $1,s,l$ ($s$ the largest root of $x^{3}-x-1$).

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Coloured Golden Triangle
Coloured Golden Triangle

In order to generate the golden triangle tilings by matching rules, L. Danzer and G. van Ophuysen found this substitution for coloured prototiles. The list of its vertex stars serves as matching rules. For more details, see golden triangle and the references there.

Without Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Conch
Conch

This tiling and Nautilus are dual tilings generated by non-PV morphisms. As such they are the first step in a generalisation of the work of G. Rauzy, P. Arnoux, S. Ito and others for PV substitution rules. The work that developed out of G. Rauzy’s seminal paper [Rau82] . The inflation factor for this substitution rule is either of the expanding roots of: $x^{4}-x+1 = 0$. Note that this it is related to R.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling

Preview Conch (Volume Hierarchic)
Conch (Volume Hierarchic)

A volume hierarchic version of Conch.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Self Similar Substitution

Preview Example of Canonical 1
Example of Canonical 1

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Example of Canonical 2
Example of Canonical 2

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Example of Canonical 3
Example of Canonical 3

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Rhomb Tiles

Preview Example of Canonical 4
Example of Canonical 4

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Fibonacci Times Fibonacci
Fibonacci Times Fibonacci

The 2dim analogue of the famous Fibonacci tiling in one dimension. It is just the Cartesian product of two Fibonacci tilings $F_{1}$, $ F_{2} : \{ T_{1} \times T_{2}\ |\ T_{i}\ in\ F_{i}\}$. Obviously, it can be generated by a substitution with three prototiles. It shares a lot of nice features with the 1dim Fibonacci tiling: It is a model set (better: it’s mld with one), so it has pure point spectrum.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Rhomb Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Infinite component Rauzy Fractal
Infinite component Rauzy Fractal

An invertible substitution rule with a disconnected Rauzy Fractal. For two letter substitution rules the Rauzy fractal is connected if and only if the substitution is invertible. In fact as the window is one dimensional for these tilings it is an interval. It was hoped that the connectedness property extended to the higher dimensional case. Unfortunately, as this example shows, this is not the case. A second example, with just two components is 2-component Rauzy fractal.

One Dimensional Euclidean Windowed Tiling Self Similar Substitution Polytopal Tiles

Preview Infinite component Rauzy Fractal (dual)
Infinite component Rauzy Fractal (dual)

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Kenyon 2 Polygonal
Kenyon 2 Polygonal

A polygonal version of Kenyon 2. The edges are generated by the morphism: a->b, b->c, c->d, d-> b’a’ (where x’ is the inverse of x).

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Kenyon'S Construction

Preview Kidney and its dual
Kidney and its dual

The substitution $a \rightarrow ab, b \rightarrow cb, c \rightarrow a$ is the composition of the one with the smallest PV scaling factor, $a \rightarrow bc, b \rightarrow a, c \rightarrow b$, and its mirror image, $a \rightarrow cb, b \rightarrow a, c \rightarrow b$. As such, it is MLD to its own mirror image, $a \rightarrow ba, b \rightarrow bc, c \rightarrow a$. The scaling factor $\lambda \approx$ 1.7549 is the largest root of $x^3-2x^2+x-1=0$.

Euclidean Windowed Tiling One Dimensional Self Similar Substitution

Preview Kolakoski-(3,1) symmmetric variant, dual
Kolakoski-(3,1) symmmetric variant, dual

The substitution $a \rightarrow aca, b \rightarrow a, c \rightarrow b$ has palindromic and thus mirror symmetric variant of the Kolakoski-(3,1) substitution, which is in the same MLD class, along with the further variants A (mirror symmetric) and B (with its mirror image). The scaling factor $\lambda \approx $ 2.20557 is the largest root of $x^3-2x^2-1=0$. This substitution has a simple dual, with three mildly fractal tiles, which are all similar to each other.

Euclidean Windowed Tiling One Dimensional Self Similar Substitution

Preview Kolakoski-(3,1) variant A, with dual
Kolakoski-(3,1) variant A, with dual

The substitution $a \rightarrow bcc, b \rightarrow ba, c \rightarrow bc$ is a member of the MLD class of the Kolakoski-(3,1) sequence. As the reversed substitution generates the same hull, it is mirror symmetric. The scaling factor $\lambda \approx $ 2.20557 is the largest root of $x^3-2x^2-1=0$. This substitution has a simple dual, with three mildly fractal tiles, which are all similar to each other. The dual substitution scales by about 1.485, and rotates clockwise by about 81.22°.

Euclidean Windowed Tiling One Dimensional Self Similar Substitution

Preview Kolakoski-(3,1) variant B, with dual
Kolakoski-(3,1) variant B, with dual

The substitution $a \rightarrow abcc, b \rightarrow a, c \rightarrow bc$ is a member of the MLD class of the Kolakoski-(3,1) sequence. The scaling factor $\lambda \approx $ 2.20557 is the largest root of $x^3-2x^2-1=0$. This substitution has a simple dual, with three mildly fractal tiles, which are all similar to each other. The dual substitution scales by about 1.485, and rotates clockwise by about 81.22°.

Euclidean Windowed Tiling One Dimensional Self Similar Substitution

Preview Kolakoski-(3,1), with dual
Kolakoski-(3,1), with dual

The substitution $a \rightarrow abc, b \rightarrow ab, c \rightarrow b$ is closely related to the Kolakoski-(3,1) sequence, and is one of the examples whose windows (dual tiles, Rauzy fractals) have been analysed in detail [BaS04] . It is MLD to the mirror symmetric variant given by the palindromic substitution $a \rightarrow aca, b \rightarrow a, c \rightarrow b$. As a consequence, the Kolakoski-(3,1) substitution is MLD to its mirror image, even though it is not mirror symmetric itself.

Euclidean Windowed Tiling One Dimensional Self Similar Substitution

Preview Nautilus
Nautilus

This is the dual partner of Conch, which has more details. The scaaling factor of this rule is either of the (complex conjugate) expanding roots of $x^4 - x^3 + 1 = 0$.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles

Preview Nautilus (Volume Hierarchic)
Nautilus (Volume Hierarchic)

A volume hierarchic version of Nautilus

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Self Similar Substitution

Preview Non-invertible connected Rauzy Fractal
Non-invertible connected Rauzy Fractal

A companion to infinite component Rauzy fractal. As mentioned for that rule, it was hoped that the result for two symbol substitution rules that the window is connected if and only if the rule is invertible. This substitution rules is not invertible and yet the Rauzy fractal is connected:

Euclidean Windowed Tiling One Dimensional Polytopal Tiles Self Simmilar Substitution

Preview Overlapping Robinson Triangle I
Overlapping Robinson Triangle I

A substitution rule where the tiles are allowed to overlap. The image left indicates, that the yellow and the green tiles do overlap. It is unknown whether these tilings are mld to the Penrose Rhomb tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles

Preview Shield
Shield

In connection with physical quasicrystals, the most interesting 2dim tilings are based on 5-, 8-, 10- and 12-fold rotational symmetry. This 12-fold tiling was studied by F. Gähler, in particular its cut and project scheme, the local matching rules and diffraction properties [Gah88]. The window of the vertex set of the shield It is mld to the Socolar tiling, thus they share many interesting properties. One is that they possess a local matching rules.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Mld Class Shield And Socolar

Preview Smallest PV
Smallest PV

The three letter substitution rule whose scaling is the smallest PV number, a root of the polynomial $x^3 - x - 1 = 0$. Though it might not look it at first glance, the Rauzy fractal is connected. This can be shown using the method of A. Siegel described in [Sie04]. The Rauzy fractal:

One Dimensional Euclidean Windowed Tiling Self Similar Substitution Polytopal Tiles

Preview Smallest Pisot (dual)
Smallest Pisot (dual)

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Socolar
Socolar

In connection with physical quasicrystals, the most interesting 2dim tilings are based on 5-, 8-, 10- and 12-fold rotational symmetry. This 12-fold tiling was studied thoroughly in [Soc89], where J. Socolar described the generating substitution as well as the local matching rules and the cut and project scheme, As well as the Penrose Rhomb tilings (5- resp. 10-fold) and the Ammann-Beenker tilings (8-fold), it allows a decoration by Ammann bars (see [GS87]).

Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Canonical Substitution Tiling Mld Class Shield And Socolar

Preview Tribonacci
Tribonacci

The three letter substitution rule analysed by G. Rauzy in [Rau82] . The Rauzy fractal for this tiling is the Rauzy fractal.

Euclidean Windowed Tiling One Dimensional Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Tribonacci Dual
Tribonacci Dual

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Wheel Tiling
Wheel Tiling

There is a very simple rule to transform the wheel tiling into the shield tiling: Replace each edge in the tiling by an edge orthogonal to it, of equal length, such that the old and new edge intersect in their midpoints. Applying this rule to the wheel tiling yields the shield tiling and vice versa. This is a very simple example of tilings which are mld.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Mld Class Shield And Socolar