Polytopal Windowed Tiling

Preview A->AB, B->C, C->A (dual)
A->AB, B->C, C->A (dual)

The dual tiling of the 1D tiling a->ab, b->c, c->a, resp. the version with polygonal tiles.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogramm Tiles

Preview Ammann A4
Ammann A4

One of the tilings discovered R. Ammann in 1977, when he found several sets of aperiodic prototiles, i.e., prototiles with matching rules forcing nonperiodic tilings. These were published much later, in 1987, in [GS87] , where they were named Ammann A2 (our Ammann Chair), Ammann A3, Ammann A4, and Ammann A5 (better known as Ammann Beenker). The A4 tilings are mld to the well-known Ammann Beenker tilings. Thus they share most properties with the latter.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Parallelogram Tiles Self Similar Substitution Mld Class Ammann

Preview Ammann Chair
Ammann Chair

One of the tilings discovered by R. Ammann in 1977, published in [GS87] . The other ones (published there) are Ammann A3, Ammann A4, and Ammann A5 (better known as Ammann Beenker). The inflation factor of this substitution is quite small. It is the square root of the golden ratio, approx 1.272. These tilings are the dual tilings of the golden triangle tilings. The matching rules for the Ammann chair tilings can be expressed by using Ammann bars.

Without Decoration Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Ammann-Beenker
Ammann-Beenker

In 1977 R. Ammann found several sets of aperiodic tiles. This one (his set A5) is certainly the best-known of those. It allows tilings with perfect 8fold symmetry. The substitution factor is $1+\sqrt{2}$ - sometimes called the ‘silver mean’ - which was the first irrational inflation factor known which is not related to the golden mean. In 1982 F. Beenker described their algebraic properties, essentially how to obtain it by the projection method, following the lines of N.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Rhomb Tiles Mld Class Ammann

Preview Ammann-Beenker rhomb triangle
Ammann-Beenker rhomb triangle

A self-similar version of the Ammann-Benker tiling. The colours of the triangles in the rule image indicate the orientation of the triangles: the orange triangle is just the ochre triangle reflected. Hence the rhomb supertile has two axes of mirror symmetry.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogramm Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Central Fibonacci
Central Fibonacci

The substitution rule a1->a1 b1, a2->b2 a2, b1->a2, b2->a1. The tilings generated become Fibonacci tilings under the projection a1,a2->a and b1,b2->b. Alternatively one can simply remove the colour labels on the tiles. The name comes from the projection structure of the tiling. The expansion predecessor of the tiling is itself a projection tiling with the window lying at the center of the window for the full tiling. For more information see [HL].

Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling One Dimensional Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Self Similar Substitution Mld Class Fibonacci

Preview Example of Canonical 1
Example of Canonical 1

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Example of Canonical 2
Example of Canonical 2

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Example of Canonical 3
Example of Canonical 3

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Rhomb Tiles

Preview Example of Canonical 4
Example of Canonical 4

In his PhD thesis, E. Harriss classified all substitution tilings which are canonical projection tilings. Here one example is shown, derived from the cut and project scheme of the Ammann-Beenker tilings.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Fibonacci
Fibonacci

The classical example to explain the cut and project method (see figure, lower part): In the standard square lattice $\mathbb{Z}^2$, choose a stripe with slope $\frac{1}{\tau}$ (where tau is the golden ratio $\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}$ ) of a certain width $\cos(\arctan(\frac{1}{\tau})) + \sin(\arctan(\frac{1}{\tau})) = \frac{1+\tau}{\sqrt{2+\tau}}$. Then take all lattice points within the strip and project them orthogonally to a line parallel to the strip. This yields a sequence of points. There are two values of distances between neighboured points, say, $S$ (short) and $L$ (long).

Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling One Dimensional Parallelogram Tiles Self Similar Substitution Mld Class Fibonacci

Preview Fibonacci Times Fibonacci
Fibonacci Times Fibonacci

The 2dim analogue of the famous Fibonacci tiling in one dimension. It is just the Cartesian product of two Fibonacci tilings $F_{1}$, $ F_{2} : \{ T_{1} \times T_{2}\ |\ T_{i}\ in\ F_{i}\}$. Obviously, it can be generated by a substitution with three prototiles. It shares a lot of nice features with the 1dim Fibonacci tiling: It is a model set (better: it’s mld with one), so it has pure point spectrum.

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Rhomb Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Golden Triangle
Golden Triangle

The substitution can be expressed by using the real inflation factor $\sqrt{\tau} = 1.272\ldots$, where $\tau=\frac{\sqrt{5}+1}{2}$ is the golden mean. This factor is not a PV number. Nevertheless, the tiling is pure point diffractive, and it is a cut and project tiling, see [Gel97] , [Dv00] . Thus the right point of view is to consider it as a tiling with the inflation factor sqrt(-tau), which is a complex PV number.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Infinite component Rauzy Fractal (dual)
Infinite component Rauzy Fractal (dual)

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Kenyon (1,2,1) Polygon
Kenyon (1,2,1) Polygon

A polygonal version of Kenyon (1,2,1). The boundary is generated by the morphism $a \to b, b \to c, c \to c a' b' b'$ (where $x'$ is the inverse of $x$).

Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Parallelogram Tiles Kenyons Construction

Preview Penrose Kite Dart
Penrose Kite Dart

A classic, using a kite (blue) and a dart (orange) as prototiles. See Penrose Rhomb for more details.

Without Decoration Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Mld Class Penrose

Preview Penrose Rhomb
Penrose Rhomb

Certainly the most popular substitution tilings. Discovered in 1973 and 1974 by R. Penrose in - at least - three versions (Rhomb, Penrose kite-dart and Penrose Pentagon boat star), all of them forcing nonperiodic tilings by matching rules. It turns out that the three versions are strongly related: All three generate the same mld-class. These tiles, their matching rules and the corresponding substitution was studied thoroughly in [GS87] . A lot of information can be found there.

Without Decoration Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Rhomb Tiles Mld Class Penrose

Preview Robinson Triangle
Robinson Triangle

A variation of the Penrose rhomb tilings, suggested by R. M. Robinson. The rhombs are cut into triangles, thus making the substitution volume hierarchic. Thus, this one is obviously mld with the other Penrose tilings. For more details, see Penrose rhomb tilings. Each triangle comes either left- or right-handed, which is indicated by the different colours. This distinction is important since the triangles itself are mirror symmetric, but their first substitutions are not.

Without Decoration Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution Mld Class Penrose

Preview Shield
Shield

In connection with physical quasicrystals, the most interesting 2dim tilings are based on 5-, 8-, 10- and 12-fold rotational symmetry. This 12-fold tiling was studied by F. Gähler, in particular its cut and project scheme, the local matching rules and diffraction properties [Gah88]. The window of the vertex set of the shield It is mld to the Socolar tiling, thus they share many interesting properties. One is that they possess a local matching rules.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Mld Class Shield And Socolar

Preview Smallest Pisot (dual)
Smallest Pisot (dual)

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Parallelogram Tiles

Preview Socolar
Socolar

In connection with physical quasicrystals, the most interesting 2dim tilings are based on 5-, 8-, 10- and 12-fold rotational symmetry. This 12-fold tiling was studied thoroughly in [Soc89], where J. Socolar described the generating substitution as well as the local matching rules and the cut and project scheme, As well as the Penrose Rhomb tilings (5- resp. 10-fold) and the Ammann-Beenker tilings (8-fold), it allows a decoration by Ammann bars (see [GS87]).

Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Canonical Substitution Tiling Mld Class Shield And Socolar

Preview Tribonacci Dual
Tribonacci Dual

Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Canonical Substitution Tiling Polytopal Tiles Parallelogram Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Tuebingen Triangle
Tuebingen Triangle

Beside the Penrose rhomb tilings (and its variations), this is a classical candidate to model 5-fold (resp. 10-fold) quasicrystals. The inflation factor is - as in the Penrose case - the golden mean, $\frac{\sqrt{5}}{2} + \frac{1}{2}$. The prototiles are Robinson triangles, but these tilings are not mld to the Penrose tilings. The relation is different: The Penrose rhomb tilings are locally derivable from the Tübingen Triangle tilings. These tilings were discovered and studied thoroughly by a group in Tübingen, Germany, thus the name [BKSZ90] .

Finite Rotations Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Self Similar Substitution

Preview Wheel Tiling
Wheel Tiling

There is a very simple rule to transform the wheel tiling into the shield tiling: Replace each edge in the tiling by an edge orthogonal to it, of equal length, such that the old and new edge intersect in their midpoints. Applying this rule to the wheel tiling yields the shield tiling and vice versa. This is a very simple example of tilings which are mld.

With Decoration Finite Rotations Euclidean Windowed Tiling Polytopal Windowed Tiling Polytopal Tiles Mld Class Shield And Socolar